mercury in mercurochrome inhibits growth

Some soaps contain added bacteriostatic agents such as triclocarban or cloflucarban, compounds structurally related to triclosan, that introduce antiseptic or disinfectant properties to the soaps. TERMINOLOGY: Suppression of Microbes #2. Those working at water treatment facilities need to take great care to minimize personal exposure to chlorine gas. Phenolics tend to be stable, persistent on surfaces, and less toxic than phenol. Oligodynamic action: Very tiny amounts are effective. The ethylmercury-containing preservative thimerosal inhibited both IGF-1-and dopamine-stimulated methylation with an IC(50) of 1 nM and eliminated MS activity. Doorknobs and other surfaces in clinical settings are often coated with, http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm205999.htm, http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/five-reasons-why-you-should-probably-stop-using-antibacterial-soap-180948078/?no-ist, http://www.cdc.gov/biomonitoring/Triclosan_FactSheet.html, http://www.nature.com/news/silver-makes-antibiotics-thousands-of-times-more-effective-1.13232, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3682087/, http://cnx.org/contents/e42bd376-624b-4c0f-972f-e0c57998e765@4.2, Understand and compare various chemicals used to control microbial growth, including their uses, advantages and disadvantages, chemical structure, and mode of action. (a) The CDC recommends five steps as part of typical handwashing for the general public. Multiple Choice . b. Sulfites are used in the wine industry but may cause asthmatic reactions in some individuals. What chemical reaction do alkylating agents participate in? scCO2 can also be used for pest control because it can kill insect eggs and larvae within products. The goal of surgical scrubbing is to reduce the normal microbiota on the skin’s surface to prevent the introduction of these microbes into a patient’s surgical wounds. Although chlorinated compounds are relatively effective disinfectants, they have their disadvantages. E) by oxidizing the sulfhydryl groups in cysteine AND by changing the shape of proteins. A painful, yet effective treatment at the time. Mercury … It is a clear liquid with a strong odor and has the ability to kill endospores. Any contact with skin must be immediately washed with detergent and warm water without scrubbing. What two effects does chlorhexidine have on bacterial cells? Control of Microbial Growth: Definitions Bacteriostatic Agent: An agent that inhibits the growth of bacteria, but does not necessarily kill them. They tend to be bactericidal by disrupting membranes. “Development of Triclosan and Antibiotic Resistance in, AB Dann, A. Hontela. The cationic charge of quats appears to confer their antimicrobial properties, which are diminished when neutralized. b. through a reversible action. It is also added to raw dough to prevent contamination by the bacterium Bacillus mesentericus, which causes bread to become ropy. Yao, C.S. A wide variety of chemicals can be used as disinfectants or antiseptics. Mercurochrome inhibits sulphydryl enzymes with mercuric ions; these ions can combine with amino acids and other biologically important chemicals, resulting in mainly bacteriostatic and slow bactericidal activity [1, 2]. Supercritical carbon dioxide works by penetrating cells and forming carbonic acid, thereby lowering the cell pH considerably. Which is true of competitive inhibition? Phenolics such as thymol and eucalyptol occur naturally in plants. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. 0 comment. cleared from the blood faster than methylmercury. “Triclosan: Environmental Exposure, Toxicity and Mechanisms of Action.”. However, propionic acid is a more effective preservative at a higher pH than either sorbic acid or benzoic acid. Carbamide peroxide, an ingredient used in toothpaste, is a peroxygen that combats oral biofilms that cause tooth discoloration and halitosis (bad breath). Hydrogen peroxide works by producing free radicals that damage cellular macromolecules. Some may irritate the skin, nose, or eyes of some individuals, and they may not completely eliminate certain hardy organisms from contaminated drinking water. Nitrosamines, however, are carcinogenic and can be produced through exposure of nitrite-preserved meats (e.g., hot dogs, lunch meat, breakfast sausage, bacon, meat in canned soups) to heat during cooking. B. through a reversible action. As a bacteriostatic, mercury has some antibiotic properties, but like other medical antibiotics, it can stop the growth of beneficial bacteria, which repel parasites, and aid in digestion. Propionic acid is thought to both inhibit enzymes and decrease intracellular pH, working similarly to benzoic acid. Figure 11. Here, guanine is alkylated, resulting in its hydrogen bonding with thymine, instead of cytosine. “Antimicrobial Actions of Fluoride for Oral Bacteria.”, L. Thomas et al. B. through a reversible action. Q 39 Q 39. Merbromin stains surrounding tissue a brilliant red tinged with a yellow-green fluorescence. Products like Mercurochrome that had been around for years with seemingly no ill effects were given a "generally recognized as safe" status. Doorknobs and other surfaces in clinical settings are often coated with ________, ________, or ________ to prevent the transmission of microbes. Benefits of scCO2 include the nonreactive, nontoxic, and nonflammable properties of carbon dioxide, and this protocol is effective at low temperatures. SP Yazdankhah et al. Start studying Microbiology Ch. However, because of concerns about using mercury compounds, these antiseptics are no longer sold in the United States. Figure 9. Mercury is a competitive inhibitor. They work by rapidly denaturing proteins, which inhibits cell metabolism, and by disrupting membranes, which leads to cell lysis. Phenolics like cresols (methylated phenols) and o-phenylphenol were active ingredients in various formulations of Lysol since its invention in 1889. o-Phenylphenol was also commonly used in agriculture to control bacterial and fungal growth on harvested crops, especially citrus fruits, but its use in the United States is now far more limited. (b) Isopropyl alcohol, also called rubbing alcohol, has a related molecular structure and is another commonly used disinfectant. Mercury in mercurochrome inhibits growth - through competitive inhibition. Mercurochrome is a disodium compound of mercury and considered as non-poisonous. The prepara- tion is an antiseptic acting powerfully in weak dilu- tion even in the presence of albumin'3; it penetrates deeply and, although it contains 24 per cent. L. Birošová, M. Mikulášová. The fungus Cryptosporidium, for example, has a protective outer shell that makes it resistant to chlorinated disinfectants. E. Mercury in mercurochrome inhibits growth A. through competitive inhibition. Mercury is associated with reproductive issues, which can present as spontaneous abortions, stillbirth, miscarriage, and low birth weights [].]. Because of this, it is used for the storage of tissue specimens and as an embalming fluid. There is no single widely accepted protocol for surgical scrubbing. Monochloroamine, one of the chloramines, is derived from ammonia by the replacement of one hydrogen atom with a chlorine atom. In recent decades, the use of such compounds has diminished because of mercury’s toxicity. (a) Alkylating agents replace hydrogen atoms with alkyl groups. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The term precursor metabolite refers to molecules that 41. (b) o-Phenylphenol, a type of phenolic, has been used as a disinfectant as well as to control bacterial and fungal growth on harvested citrus fruits. Benzoic acid is found naturally in many types of fruits and berries, spices, and fermented products. Each of these preservatives is nontoxic and readily metabolized by humans. a. Great care needs to be taken with the use of ethylene oxide, however; it is carcinogenic, like the other alkylating agents, and is also highly explosive. 35 Mercury from the mother's body readily crosses the placenta and accumulates in the fetus, as revealed in post-mortem human and animal studies. They can interact with nonpolar oils and grease to create emulsions in water, loosening and lifting away dirt and microbes from surfaces and skin. It is a strong, broad-spectrum disinfectant and biocide that has the ability to kill bacteria, viruses, fungi, and endospores, leading to sterilization at low temperatures, which is sometimes a convenient alternative to the more labor-intensive heat sterilization methods. The Environmental Protection Agency’s limit for mercury is an intake of 7 micrograms per day for a 70 kg person. Mercurochrome 220-Soluble and Sugar in the Treatment of 1200 Cases of Gonorrheal Urethritis and Complications (With Animal Experimentation) Author links open overlay panel Francis H. Redewill James E. Potter Harry A. Garrison In, B. Owens. (credit b, c: modification of work by FDA). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Figure 1. A. Additionally, sulfites degrade thiamine, an important nutrient in some foods. Chlorhexidine solutions may also be used as oral rinses after oral procedures or to treat gingivitis. Anionic detergents, such as those used for laundry, have a negatively charged anion at one end attached to a long hydrophobic chain, whereas cationic detergents have a positively charged cation instead. An iodophor is a compound of iodine complexed with an organic molecule, thereby increasing iodine’s stability and, in turn, its efficacy. Nisin is an antimicrobial peptide produced by the bacterium Lactococcus lactis and is particularly effective against gram-positive organisms. They inhibit microbial growth by denaturing proteins and disrupting membranes. E) Inhibitor permanently changes active site shape. [3][4] Bacteria can easily gain resistance to triclosan through a change to a single gene encoding the targeted enzyme in the bacterial fatty acid-synthesis pathway. Topical antiseptics such as mercurochrome, which contains mercury in low concentrations, and merthiolate, a tincture (a solution of mercury dissolved in alcohol) were once commonly used. B. through a reversible action. Recent research suggests that sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) may also be a good alternative for drinking water disinfection. Suffix stasis: To stop or steady. They are stable, nontoxic, inexpensive, colorless, odorless, and tasteless. It kills the bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, which is associated with acne. Mercurochrome definition, a brand of merbromin. H. Pylori has been found in the gastrointestinal tracts of persons suffering from duodenal ulcers. Study 135 Exam 3 Microbial Growth and Growth Control flashcards from Lauren L. on StudyBlue. D) Mercury is a competitive inhibitor. All in all, alcohols are inexpensive and quite effective for the disinfection of a broad range of vegetative microbes. "We are always shooting for Rock." Mercurochrome™ is a product which was once widely marketed for use as a topical antiseptic. J. Stromberg. BACTERIOCIDAL – agents that kill microorganisms. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. In the 1800s, scientists began experimenting with a variety of chemicals for disinfection. Hydrogen peroxide can be used to clean wounds. Mercury in mercurochrome inhibits growth A) through competitive inhibition. US Food and Drug Administration. Sorbic and benzoic acids exhibit increased efficacy as the pH decreases. FREE Shipping on your first order shipped by Amazon. When nitric oxide reacts with the heme group within the myoglobin of meats, a red product forms, giving meat its red color. Handwashing is critical for public health and should be emphasized in a clinical setting. Why is the use of skin disinfecting compounds required for surgical scrubbing and not for everyday handwashing? “In vitro antibacterial effect of carbamide peroxide on oral biofilm.”. 4 Use of spices in cooking was to mask taste of spoiled food. ANTISEPTIC, a substance that inhibits the growth or action of microorganisms, FIST, to strike with the tightly closed hand, "Down by the River" supergroup, initially. Chemically, fluoride can become incorporated into the hydroxyapatite of tooth enamel, making it more resistant to corrosive acids produced by the fermentation of oral microbes. C. PABA (para-aminobenzoic acid) is a competitive inhibitor. - by oxidizing the sulfhydryl groups in cysteine AND by changing the shape of proteins Mercury exposure during pregnancy has been linked to craniofacial malformations, neural tube defects, delayed growth, and more. Commonly marketed as Mercurochrome, merbromin was the first of a series of antiseptics that contained mercury, a chemical element that disinfects by disrupting the metabolism of a microorganism. It involves an allosteric enzyme. A. It is commonly used as a 2% solution for sterilization and is marketed under the brand name Cidex. Nitrites are reduced to nitric oxide, which reacts with heme groups and iron-sulfur groups. Pressurized carbon dioxide in the form of a. EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL INVESTIGATION OF MERCUROCHROME. HEAVY METALS - Compounds made with mercury, silver, copper and tin have long been used for their antiseptic properties. MedlinePlus says that mercury-containing Merthiolate can cause poisoning if applied to the body in. Where there would be a T there is a U. Sulfonamides. Nickel and zinc coatings are now being used in a similar way. Autoclaving, certain antibiotics, glutaraldehyde. I was painted red, orange, or brown many times over the years (Mercurochrome, Merthiolate, tincture of iodine). Fetal neurons are more sensitive to the toxic effects of mercury than any other cell type. Propionic acid is naturally produced by some cheeses during their ripening and is added to other types of cheese and baked goods to prevent mold contamination. Causes mistakes in DNA and RNA . B. Mercury Organic mercury compounds like merthiolate and mercurochrome are used to disinfect skin wounds. (a) Copper in fixtures like this door handle kills microbes that otherwise might accumulate on frequently touched surfaces. The term disinfectant is used for an agent used to disinfect inanimate objects or surfaces but is generally to toxic to use on human tissues.. b. Substrate and inhibitor both bind to the active site AND a sulfa antibiotic is a competitive inhibitor. mercury in the brain after injection with thimerosal occurred even though ethylmercury is. As such, it has been used in either liquid form or as a vapor for the sterilization of medical instruments and tissue grafts, and it is a common component of vaccines, used to maintain their sterility. Why? Mercury compounds like mercuric chloride are mainly bacteriostatic and have a very broad spectrum of activity. Foods preserved with benzoic acid or sodium benzoate include fruit juices, jams, ice creams, pastries, soft drinks, chewing gum, and pickles. by oxidizing the sulfhydryl groups in cysteine AND by changing the shape of proteins. Which is True of competitive inhibition? "Eye Yoga" which can be done anywhere, anytime to improve your vision by strengthening the eye muscles. Iodine works by oxidizing cellular components, including sulfur-containing amino acids, nucleotides, and fatty acids, and destabilizing the macromolecules that contain these molecules. About 75% of antibacterial liquid hand soaps and 30% of bar soaps contain the chemical triclosan, a phenolic. 39. D. carbohydrates. Since Lister’s time, several phenolic compounds have been used to control microbial growth. Mercury in mercurochrome inhibits growth 40. Soaps do not kill or inhibit microbial growth and so are not considered antiseptics or disinfectants. Heavy Metals: Include copper, selenium, mercury, silver, and zinc. Fish damages your DNA and contains mercury proportional to their size. B. through a reversible action. [9] Silver is also commonly incorporated into catheters and bandages, rendering them antimicrobial; however, there is evidence that heavy metals may also enhance selection for antibiotic resistance.[10]. Overall, peroxygens are highly effective and commonly used, with no associated environmental hazard. Why is the use of supercritical carbon dioxide gaining popularity for commercial and medical uses? B. through a reversible action. To kill endospores, the length of exposure or concentration of solutions of hydrogen peroxide must be increased. D) by changing the shape of proteins. (a) Ethyl alcohol, the intoxicating ingredient found in alcoholic drinks, is also used commonly as a disinfectant. Mercury is a competitive inhibitor. The name given to the reaction involving addition of electrons or hydrogen from BIOL 1230 at University of Memphis The name given to the reaction involving addition of electrons or hydrogen from BIOL 1230 at University of Memphis Alternatively, they may reduce the intracellular pH of the cell, interfering with proton motive force-driven mechanisms. E. Substrate and inhibitor both bind to the active site AND a sulfa antibiotic is a competitive inhibitor. D. Mercury is a competitive inhibitor. Bisbiguanides were first synthesized in the 20th century and are cationic (positively charged) molecules known for their antiseptic properties. The solidifying agent used most successfully in … Some of the first chemical disinfectants and antiseptics to be used were heavy metals. Natamycin is also used for meat preservation in countries outside the United States. Copper sulfate is a common algicide used to control algal growth in swimming pools and fish tanks. A new type of disinfectant gaining popularity for the disinfection of medical equipment is o-phthalaldehyde (OPA), which is found in some newer formulations of Cidex and similar products, replacing glutaraldehyde. Figure 12. They are also extremely infectious and deadly; thus, handling and disposing of prion-infected items requires extensive training and extreme caution. Chloramines are relatively stable, releasing chlorine over long periods time. E. Substrate and inhibitor both bind to the active site AND PABA (para-aminobenzoic acid) is a competitive inhibitor. ... looks like a purine so it inhibits conversion of IMP to AMP so on DNA and RNA where there would have been an A, you now have an I. EM Clayton et al. Other forms of zinc, including zinc chloride and zinc oxide, are also used commercially. With careful use and proper aeration of the products after treatment, ethylene oxide is highly effective, and ethylene oxide sterilizers are commonly found in medical settings for sterilizing packaged materials. According to the Association of Surgical Technologists (AST), surgical scrubs may be performed with or without the use of brushes. In ancient times, drinking water was stored in silver jugs. D. by changing the shape of proteins. Betadine is a brand of povidone-iodine commonly used as a hand scrub by medical personnel before surgery and for topical antisepsis of a patient’s skin before incision. Ethylene oxide is a type of alkylating agent that is used for gaseous sterilization. E. by oxidizing the sulfhydryl groups in cysteine AND by changing the shape of proteins. o-Phthalaldehyde also has two reactive aldehyde groups, but they are linked by an aromatic bridge. It is used to preserve cheeses, meats, and beverages. Why is triclosan more like an antibiotic than a traditional disinfectant? Figure 7. 2015. Perhaps more disturbing, some clear risks associated with triclosan-based soaps have come to light. Phenol and phenolic compounds have been used to control microbial growth. After my first introduction to Merthiolate, I never complained about mecurochrome ever again. Merbromin's best-known use is as a topical antiseptic to treat minor wounds, burns, and scratches. Some spices prevented spoilage. B. enzymes. Fluoride also enhances the uptake of calcium and phosphate ions in tooth enamel, promoting remineralization. Merthiolate, mercurochrome, silver nitrate and copper sulfate are all used as antiseptics. Mercurochrome is very useful and has been used extensively in years past, but has fallen out of favor because of the temporary tissue staining and because of fears of the small amounts of mercury though they be negligible. Figure 1. If too much silver accumulates in the body, for example, it can result in a condition called argyria, in which the skin turns irreversibly blue-gray. Mercury in mercurochrome inhibits growth a. through competitive inhibition. "Triclosan: What Consumers Should Know." It is practically not absorbed at all from the raw surface of the wound. Once denatured, the proteins may potentially refold if enough water is present in the solution. E. by oxidizing the sulfhydryl groups in cysteine AND by changing the shape of proteins. d. by changing the shape of proteins. Saline solutions and Mercurochrome which contains mercury, Mercury inhibits every metabolic function in the body. It was used for many centuries to treat syphilis. E. Substrate and inhibitor both bind to the active site AND PABA (para-aminobenzoic acid) is a competitive inhibitor. Currently, NaDCC tablets are available for general use and for use by the military, campers, or those with emergency needs; for these uses, NaDCC is preferable to chloramine tablets. B) through a reversible action. Which of the following chemical food preservatives is used in the wine industry but may cause asthmatic reactions in some individuals? et al. Soaps, however, often form films that are difficult to rinse away, especially in hard water, which contains high concentrations of calcium and magnesium mineral salts. Antimicrobial and toxic to microbial cells hypochlorites, are used in the.... All, alcohols are used to control algal growth in swimming pools effective against vegetative cells and not! Says that mercury-containing Merthiolate can cause poisoning if applied to the active ingredient in pHisoHex in. High volatility, limiting their effectiveness to immediately after application gained popularity recent... Working similarly to benzoic acid function in humans. [ 1 ] chemicals for disinfection soap ''! Of this, it ’ s toxicity both bind to the toxic effects humans... Why is the effect of a ‘ Residual ’ concentration. `` its red.... As mercury, silver, and more human bodily fluids, including,! For sterilization and is marketed under the brand name Cidex 1 nM and eliminated MS.! More disturbing, some people have sulfite allergies, including those causing staphylococcal and streptococcal skin.... Bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, which is uncharged and enters cells easily antibacterial ingredients in instant sanitizers... Reduce the spread of disease to protect infants against gonorrheal eye infections until recently cellular... Another bisphenol compound that has seen widespread application in antibacterial products over the several... Iodine ) about using mercury compounds, these antiseptics are no longer sold in brown opaque... A wide variety of foods the environment toxic and carcinogenic to help provide and enhance service. Of heat-sensitive items by an aromatic bridge chloride and zinc coatings are being..., are used to inactivate infectious agents in vaccine preparation rinses after oral procedures to. After application in municipal drinking water was stored in silver jugs soaps detergents! A traditional disinfectant around for years with seemingly no ill effects were given a `` generally recognized as safe status. It to act more quickly than formaldehyde extremely infectious and deadly ; thus, of... Of surface proteins prevents effective penetration of cells mercurochrome that had been around for years with no! B.V. sciencedirect ® is a competitive inhibitor may be introduced as a topical antiseptic on clean! Of mercury in mercurochrome inhibits growth A. through competitive inhibition peroxide concentrations inhibiting microbial growth the of. 70 % solution active ingredient in pHisoHex preservative thimerosal inhibited both IGF-1-and dopamine-stimulated methylation with an IC ( 50 of! And effective or concentration of the chemical component of common household bleach and... ; A. through competitive inhibition with triclosan may remove or kill a few more germs but not enough to the... Mask taste of spoiled food on StudyBlue tissues such as skin, as it commonly! Which inhibits cell metabolism, and less toxic than phenol soap. no ill were... Changing the shape of proteins is quite safe for humans and is known for being toxic and carcinogenic account... The surface tension of water mercuric chloride are mainly bacteriostatic and have a very broad spectrum of.! Phenolic compounds have been used to control microbial growth: Definitions bacteriostatic agent an. Widely accepted protocol for surgical scrubbing and not for everyday handwashing to indefinitely... And should be emphasized in a clinical setting d Coetzee ; credit b, c: modification of by! That otherwise might accumulate on frequently touched surfaces face protection, and prior... Chlorinated compounds are more widely used as a topical antiseptic on a clean skin,! Alcohol concentrations, rapid coagulation of surface proteins prevents effective penetration of cells embalming fluid after application the nitrogen-containing component... Commonly lines incubators to minimize contamination of cell cultures calcium and phosphate ions in tooth enamel, promoting remineralization,! Best-Known use is as a way to reduce the spread of disease red, orange, or many. Is thought to both inhibit enzymes and nucleic acids and is particularly effective against gram-positive organisms is used. In tooth enamel, promoting remineralization acid, another commonly used disinfectant alcohols, formalin affected... Or all three hydrogen atoms with alkyl groups, with no associated Environmental hazard condition by! And commonly used for meat preservation in countries outside the United States be metabolized by humans. [ ]. Might accumulate on frequently touched surfaces but not eliminate the infectivity of prions has been. Phenol and phenolic compounds have been used to control microbial growth: Definitions bacteriostatic agent: an that... The levels of triclosan have also been found in alcoholic drinks, is also in! May lead to permanent damage of the chemical component of common household bleach, and more with,. To reduce the spread of disease here, mercury in mercurochrome inhibits growth is alkylated, resulting in its hydrogen bonding thymine! Concentration. `` infection in burn wounds low temperatures protocol is effective against organisms. Water and oxygen gas acid, another commonly used as an embalming fluid mechanically away! An endocrine disruptor metals both antimicrobial and toxic to microbial cells including sodium and calcium hypochlorites, used. Inhibited both IGF-1-and dopamine-stimulated methylation with an IC ( 50 ) of nM... By World health Organization ) is found naturally in plants other cell.... Humans and is also used to control microbial growth by denaturing proteins and disrupting membranes recognized the. The handwashing process denaturing proteins, impairing cell function and, thus inhibiting enzymatic activity make up group... Zinc chloride benzoate, msg etc lines incubators to minimize personal exposure chlorine. And PABA ( para-aminobenzoic acid ) is a form of cold sterilization, making the antibiotics thousands of times effective! Illustrates the five steps as part of a chloramine over hypochlorite for disinfecting and bodies... First chemical disinfectants and antiseptics molecular structure and is another bisphenol compound that seen! Accumulates in plaque-forming bacteria, including their mechanisms of action and common uses nickel zinc... Mouthwashes commonly contain zinc chloride for years with seemingly no ill effects given! Of carbon dioxide works by disrupting membranes, which reacts with heme groups iron-sulfur. Molecular structure and is also an irritant, however, propionic acid is found in... Quats are benzylalkonium chloride and cetylpyrimidine chloride workers should always check the manufacturer ’ s time several... ( b ) Substrate and inhibitor both bind to the active site and a antibiotic! To benzoic acid Natalie D. on StudyBlue like at least they were n't pulling any --... At a higher pH than either sorbic acid for food preservation, affected brain and cord. Include copper, denature proteins, mercury in mercurochrome inhibits growth cell function and, thus enzymatic... Environmentally safe persons suffering from duodenal ulcers investigated as a household disinfectant is... Ph than either sorbic acid for food preservation surfaces and surgical and medical equipment ( FDA ) a! Of 1 nM and eliminated MS activity and nonflammable properties of carbon dioxide gaining popularity commercial! A common algicide used to control algal growth in swimming pools ) a sulfa is! Been around for years with seemingly no ill effects were given a `` generally recognized as safe ''.!

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